Vitamin B-12 can be obtained from your diet as two dietary forms; methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin) via synthesis by intestinal flora and stored in the liver. These two forms are the active coenzyme forms used by human metabolism. Because our bodies contain only a very small amount of vitamin B-12 (2-5 mg), reserves can become depleted easily due to malnutrition, lack of intrinsic factor in the gut or mal-absorption. Synthetic forms of vitamin B-12 are hydroxycobalamin and cyanocobalamin, the latter being the most widely used source in the dietary supplement industry. The liver is able to convert small amounts of cyanocobalamin into methylcobalamin; although methylcobalamin is chosen since it’s the active form and better absorbed. Research studies showing that the urinary output of methylcobalamin was far less compared to cyanocobalamin, indicating that methylcobalamin has greater tissue retention.
Methylcobalamin is a co-enzyme in the enzyme methionine synthase which transports methyl groups for the restoration of methionine from homocysteine, along with folate (folic acid). Methionine is then utilized to create SAM-e, a donor for methyl groups, which is involved in many metabolic reactions, including release of neurotransmitters and donating methyl groups to phospholipids. As one study has shown that adding methylcobalamin to a folic acid (folate) protocol decreases homocysteine levels quite significantly (7%) reduction).
Long term deficiency of Vitamin B-12 can affect peripheral, spinal and cognitive nerve function, explained by methylcobalamin role in the synthesis of myelin sheath, the methylation of homocysteine and the production of various neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine and synephrine.
Red Blood Cell Formation
In conjunction with Folate, Vitamin B-12 is essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids and DNA synthesis during cell proliferation during their differentiation. Insufficient B-12 levels can lead to impair cell formation and increased erythroblast cell death.
Human research shows that Vitamin B-12 may play an important part in maintaining a health immune response. The research demonstrates that supplementation with Methylcobalamin with those who had inadequate B-12 levels had improved NK cell activity, and a more favorable CD4/CD8 ratio, suggesting an valuable role in cellular immunity.
*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
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